If we want the circuit board to be implemented functional operations, it cannot be completed only by a bare PCB. The bare board needs to be mounted, plugged in, and soldered with electronic components.
Regarding technology, the PCBA process can be roughly divided into four main steps: SMT patch processing, DIP plug-in processing, PCBA testing, and finished product assembly.
This step-by-step process is called PCBA assembly. Here, I will introduce the four major steps of PCBA production.
SMT Chip Processing
In the SMT chip processing process, the components will be matched and purchased according to the BOM list provided by the customers, and the PMC plan for production will be confirmed. After the preparatory work is completed, SMT programming begins, laser stencils are made according to the SMT process, and solder paste printing is performed.
Components are mounted on the circuit board through the SMT machine, and online AOI automatic optical inspection is performed if it is necessary. After inspection, set the exact reflow oven temperature profile and let the board flow through the reflow soldering.
After the necessary IPQC intermediate inspection, the DIP plug-in process can be used to pass the plug-in material through the circuit board and then flow through wave soldering for soldering. The next step is to carry out the necessary post-furnace process.
After the above processes are completed, QA will conduct a comprehensive inspection to ensure that the product quality passes the test.
Plug-In Processing (DIP)
The process of DIP plug-in processing is as follows: plug-in, wave , cutting feet, post-welding processing, board washing, and quality inspection.
PCBA testing is the most critical quality control step in the entire PCBA manufacturing process. It is necessary to strictly follow the PCBA testing standards and test the checkpoints of the circuit board according to the customer’s test plan (Test Plan).
PCBA testing also includes 5 main forms: ICT testing, FCT testing, aging testing, fatigue testing, and testing in harsh environments.
Finished Product Assembly
The test-OK PCBA board is assembled to the shell, then tested, and finally shipped.
The production of PCBA is step by step. If there is a problem in any step, it will have a great impact on the overall quality, and each process needs to be strictly controlled.
Above are the four main steps of PCBA production. Each major step has countless small points to check and control the quality, and each small point will have one or some testing procedures to ensure product quality and avoid any unqualified products flowing out from the factory.